# Introduction to Genetics Algorithm (GA) (Part 2)

To find a basic introduction of GA, the first part can be found here.

III. Examples using Genetics Algorithm

In these examples, we will use Matlab and its function ga to apply GA for the optimization problem. For the manual of using this function, you can find it at https://www.mathworks.com/help/gads/ga.html or type in Matlab:

`help ga`

III.1. Optimization of a polynomial function

Problem: find the integer x  value that minimizes function:

y = 0.2x2 + 50/x

First, we define the function:

```function y = simple_fitness(x)
y = 0.2*x.^2+(50./x);```

And use Matlab to finish the job:

```clear; close all; clc

x=linspace(0,40,100);
y=simple_fitness(x);
plot(x,y);

rng(1,'twister') % for reproducibility
lb=[1];
[x,fval] = ga(@simple_fitness,1,[],[],[],[],lb

xlabel('Size of cup');
ylabel('Objective Function Value');
title(sprintf('Minimum of the function is %.2f at x = %.2f',min(y), x))
grid on```

And here is the result:

III.2. Find the best location of the earthquakes

Problem: we have a set of 5 seismic stations with coordinates: [-2 3 0; 1 3 0; -2 -1 0; 0 -3 0; 2 -2 0]

The travel time of seismic ray from EQ to stations is calculated from:

To simplify the problem, we choose v = 6 km

```clear; close all; clc
stnx=[-2 1 -2 0 2];
stny=[3 3 -1 -3 -2];
stnz=[0 0 0 0 0];
EQ=[2 2 -2];

to=sqrt((EQ(1)-stnx).^2+(EQ(2)-stny).^2+(EQ(3)-stnz).^2)/6
to=to+0.05*randn(size(to))
rms = @(mp) sum(sqrt((1./(length(to)-4)).*((sqrt((mp(1)-stnx).^2+(mp(2)-stny).^2+(mp(3)-stnz).^2)/6)-to).^2));
% rms([2 2 -2])
ub=[10 10 0]; %upper bound
lb=[0 0 -10]; %lower bound
options = gaoptimset('Display','iter','PlotFcn',@gaplotbestf,'Generations',150)
% options = gaoptimset('Display','iter','PlotFcn',@gaplotbestf,'TolCon',1e-3);

mp = ga(rms,3,[],[],[],[],lb,ub,[],options)

figure; hold on; grid on;
scatter3(stnx, stny, stnz, 'b', 'filled', '^');
scatter3(mp(1), mp(2), mp(3), 'r', '*');
scatter3(EQ(1), EQ(2), EQ(3), 'g', '*');
view(3); xlabel('X axis'); ylabel('Y axis'); zlabel('Z axis');
legend('Stations','EQ location from GA','Real EQ location');

```

Utpal Kumar

IESAS