Introduction to Python Part II

I. Type of objects in Python:

In Python, every object has its own class – or type of data. The in-depth tutorial can be found on the web, for example, In this tutorial, I will introduce some basic type in Python.

To check type of a variable, data, you can use function type(variable)

+ Numbers: most frequently use is float and int type. The float type uses decimal while the int rounds number. Below is the example of using these type of number. To convert to int and float type, we use int(variable) and float(variable). A number can take numeric operations like +(add), – (subtract), *(multiply), /(divide), % (modulo), ** (exponential)


+ Strings: any character information, that in between ‘ ‘ or ” “.  Strings can be joined together by using + operation.


+ List: Python often uses compound data types, used to group together with other values. The most versatile is the list, which can be written as a list of comma-separated values (items) between square brackets. Lists might contain items of different types: numbers, string or list itself (a list of lists). This type is a basic type to analyze data in Python because it makes you able to access data with ordering.

II. Function and method

In Python,methods are associated with object instances or classes; functions aren’t. When Python dispatches (calls) a method, then it binds the first parameter of that call to the appropriate object reference. A function often has the form of function(argument) while an argument can be any kind of data type (number, string, list). A method must be associated with a type of object and often have the form of object.method(argument) with an object is the suitable type to do a method.

Let’s do some practice and take the list as an example. Screen Shot 2016-12-05 at 1.29.13 PM.png

The functions used in here are len (return the length of an object – how many objects in a list) and print (display an object on screen). The methods used in here are append(add an object to a list) and reverse (reverse the order of objects in a list).


Introduction to Python (Part I)

Python is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted programming language. It can be used to do some different purpose: from managing large data, simple to complex calculations to very specific objectives by using the pre-written packages.

There are 2 most common used versions of Python: Python 2 (current version is 2.7) and Python 3 (current version is 3.5). The 2 versions are different in some syntax, which Python 2 is the stable version while Python 3 is the developing version.

I. Basics syntax

A python script can be invoked by the first line ‘#!/usr/bin/python’ similar to using Perl.

Running a python program: we will start with how to run a python program as below:


hello = 'Hello World!'

print hello

To run a program in python we use:



Addition flags can be used to calibrate the running process, details can be found here. A useful flag is -i (interactive mode) which allows you to control the variable and running process.

Screenshot from 2016-11-17 12-51-54.png

Command locals() is used to give a dictionary of local variables. All of the variables with __ are python pre-defined variables. This mode helps to check the variables during your program.

Using as a calculator: Basic mathematics operation can be used in Python, for example:


For more complex calculations, a package named numpy is used to complete these task. A tutorial in using Python package will be presented later.

II. Using external commands

Python allows running external commands using either module: os and subprocess.

import os

os.system('ls -l')


from subprocess import call


Nguyen Cong Nghia – IESAS

Tool to download large HTML file

Sometimes when you need to download catalog data using a web browser (Chrome, Firefox, etc.), it will take some time and might cause crash or lag. Here is some ways to do it:

I. Using wget
+ Install if you do not have in terminal:

yum install wget


sudo apt-get install wget

+ Basic commands:

wget –output-document= {output file}  {link to download}

E.g:wget ‐‐output-document=filename.html

Details of how to use it can be find here or here.

II. A simple python code

All you need to do it install python and tqdm package using

pip install tqdm

Or run the sh file which I have already written the code to install tqdm package.

Run ./ or python to run, example below:

screenshot-from-2016-10-18-14-37-56You can download this small utility here.

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