Utility program: add all images in your directory to make a video


If you want to add all the images in your directory sequentially to make a video for a presentation then you can use this utility program.

In the first step, we will make a series of “.png” images by plotting the bar diagram of the GDP of the top 10 countries with years (1960-2017). We then add all these images sequentially to make a video. Here, we will add the images using the cv2 package of Python. Please keep in mind that the video can also be created using the matplotlib package of python. This is an alternative to perform the same task. In some cases, when we have a collection of images and we want to add them, then also this can be very handy.

To install the cv2 package using Anaconda, type:

conda install -c menpo opencv

Now, we can obtain the data for GDP of all countries from 1960-2017 from the World Bank website. We then use “pandas” package of Python to read the csv data file and “matplotlib” package to plot the bar diagram.

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.ticker import FuncFormatter

# function for setting the format of values in billions of dollars
def trillions(x,pos):
    'The two args are the value and tick position'
    return '${:.1f}T'.format(x * 1e-12)
formatter = FuncFormatter(trillions)

df = df.set_index("Country Name")
with open('neglect_regions.txt',mode='r') as file:
    alist = [line.rstrip() for line in file]
# print(alist)

for year in years:
    top_10=df.nlargest(num, str(year))
    # print(top_10[str(year)])
    fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10,6))
    plt.xticks(np.arange(num), top_10.index.values,fontsize=6)
    plt.close(fig) #to clear the memory




The series of bar diagram for each year from 1960-2017 is saved in the “figures” directory. Then we can run the command:

python conv_image2video.py -loc "figures" -o "world_countries_gdp.mp4"

to add all the “.png” images in the figures directory to make the video named “world_countries_gdp.mp4”.

Usage of the program “conv_image2video.py”

  1. To convert the images in the current directory, with the extension “.png”, output file name “output.mp4” and frame rate 5 fps, simply type:

python conv_image2video.py

  1. If you want to change some options, add the following flags:
-loc "path_to_images": This will look for images in the directory "path_to_images"; default="."
-o "custom_name.mp4": This will output the video with the name "custom_name.mp4"; default: "output.mp4"
-ext "jpg": This will work on the jpeg images; default: "png"
-fr "1": This will change the speed/frame rate of the video; default: "5"


To download this program, click here.

If you want to download all the files (program +examples), click here.

How to make the rotating globe


Many people have asked me how to make the rotating globe we have on our home page. This post will take you step by step how to make the rotating globe gif using “gnuplot”.

Installing GNUPLOT

To install gnuplot, you can follow this page.

In Mac, you can install gnuplot using the homebrew:

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

This will install homebrew in your Mac in case you don’t have.
Then use the command:

brew install gnuplot --with-x11

This should do the job and then you should be able to run the command

Screen Shot 2018-11-03 at 3.55.53 PM.png
If this throws error then you can overwrite the symbolic links by
brew link --overwrite gnuplot

Making the rotating globe gif

Now, you can download the codes for making the gif from the GitHub by clicking here (Data Source: gnuplotting). Run this bash script in your computer, it may take a few seconds and you should be able to get the “globe.gif” file.

Screen Shot 2018-11-03 at 4.05.23 PM.png


Working with MATLAB & Python simultaneously and smoothly​

MATLAB and Python are both well known for its usefulness in the scientific computing world. There are several advantages of using one over another. Python is preferable for most of the programmers because it’s free, beautiful, and powerful. MATLAB, on the other hand, has advantages like there is the availability of a solid amount of functions, and Simulink. Both the languages have a large scientific community and are easier to learn for the beginners. Though MATLAB, because it includes all the packages we need is easier to start with than the Python where we need to install extra packages and also require an IDE. The proprietary nature of the algorithms in MATLAB i.e., we cannot see the codes of most of the algorithms and we have to trust them to implement for our usage makes us sometimes hard to prefer MATLAB over the other options available like Python. Besides, these proprietary algorithms of MATLAB come at a cost!

In short, in order to excel in all of our scientific tasks, we need to learn to utilize both of them interchangeably. This is where the Python’s module SciPy comes in handy. MATLAB reads its proprietary “mat” data format quite efficiently and fastly. The SciPy’s module, “loadmat” and “savemat” can easily read and write the data stored in the Python variable into the “mat” file, respectively. Here, we show an example to use the data from MATLAB in the “mat” format to plot in Python on a geographical map, which Python can execute much efficiently than MATLAB.

Saving the MATLAB variables into a “mat” file

In this example MATLAB script, we show how can we read the “mat” file in the MATLAB script and save it.

clear; close all; clc 

%% Load the two matfiles with some data into the workspace
load python_export_CME_ATML_orig_vars;
load station_info;

%% Remove the unrequired variables from the MATLAB's memory 
clearvars slat slon;

%% Saving the data from the "station_info.mat" file as a cell data type
stns={slons' slats' stn_name'}; 

%% Conduct some operations with the data and save it in "admF" variable
admF=[]; %intializing the matrix
for i=1:length(slons)
    ccU=corrcoef(dU(:,i),slU); %Making use of the available MATLAB functions
    admF=[admF ccU(1,2)*(std_dU/std_slU)];

%% Saving the output "admF" matrix into the "MATLAB_export_admittance_output.mat" file at a desired location.

Using the data from the “mat” file in Python to plot on a geographical map

import scipy.io as sio #importing the scipy io module for reading the mat file
import numpy as np #importing numpy module for efficiently executing numerical operations
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt #importing the pyplot from the matplotlib library
from mpl_toolkits.basemap import Basemap #importing the basemap to plot the data onto geographical map
from matplotlib import rcParams
rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (10.0, 6.0) #predefine the size of the figure window
rcParams.update({'font.size': 14}) # setting the default fontsize for the figure
from matplotlib import style
style.use('ggplot') # I use the 'ggplot' style for plotting. This is optional and can be used only if desired.

# Change the color of the axis ticks
def setcolor(x, color):
     for m in x:
         for t in x[m][1]:

# Read the two mat files and saving the MATLAB variables as the Python variables
ADF = sio.loadmat('MATLAB_export_admittance_output.mat')

STN = sio.loadmat('station_info.mat')

## Converting MATLAB cell type to numpy array data type
for ss in stnname:

## Plotting the admittance values
m = Basemap(llcrnrlon=min(slon)-offset,llcrnrlat=min(slat)-offset,urcrnrlon=max(slon)+offset,urcrnrlat=max(slat)+offset,
        resolution ='h',area_thresh=1000.)
xw,yw=m(slon,slat) #projecting the latitude and longitude data on the map projection

m.drawmapboundary(fill_color='#99ffff',zorder=0) #plot the map boundary
m.fillcontinents(color='w',zorder=1) #fill the continents region
m.drawcoastlines(linewidth=1,zorder=2) #draw the coastlines
# draw parallels
par=m.drawparallels(np.arange(21,26,1),labels=[1,0,0,0], linewidth=0.0)
setcolor(par,'k') #The color of the latitude tick marks has been set to black (default) but can be changed to any desired color
# draw meridians
m.drawmeridians(np.arange(120,123,1),labels=[0,0,0,1], linewidth=0.0)

cax=m.scatter(xw,yw,c=admF,zorder=3,s=300*admF,alpha=0.75,cmap='viridis') #plotting the data as a scatter points on the map
cbar = m.colorbar(cax) #plotting the colorbar
cbar.set_label(label='Estimated Admittance Factor',weight='bold',fontsize=16) #customizing the colorbar
plt.savefig('all_stations_admittance.png',dpi=200,bbox_inches='tight') #saving the best cropped output figure as a png file with resolution of 200 dpi.

Output figure from Python


Writing NetCDF4 Data using Python

For how to read a netCDF data, please refer to the previous post. Also, check the package and tools required for writing the netCDF data, check the page for reading the netCDF data.

Importing relevant libraries

import netCDF4 
import numpy as np

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.20.50 PM.png

Let us create a new empty netCDF file named “new.nc” in the “../../data” directory and open it for writing.

ncfile = netCDF4.Dataset('../../data/new.nc',mode='w',format='NETCDF4_CLASSIC') 

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.30.59 PM.png

Notice here that we have set the mode to be “w”, which means write mode. We can also open the data in append mode (“a”). It is safe to check whether the netCDF file has closed, using the try and except statement.

Creating Dimensions

We can now fill the netCDF files opened with the dimensions, variables, and attributes. First of all, let’s create the dimension.

lat_dim = ncfile.createDimension('lat', 73) # latitude axis
lon_dim = ncfile.createDimension('lon', 144) # longitude axis
time_dim = ncfile.createDimension('time', None) # unlimited axis (can be appended to).
for dim in ncfile.dimensions.items():

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.35.59 PM.png

Every dimension has a name and length. If we set the dimension length to be 0 or None, then it takes it as of unlimited size and can grow. Since we are following the netCDF classic format, only one dimension can be unlimited. To make more than one dimension to be unlimited follow the other format. Here, we will constrain to the classic format only as it is the simplest one.

Creating attributes

One of the nice features of netCDF data format is that we can also store the meta-data information along with the data. This information can be stored as attributes.

ncfile.title='My model data'

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.43.38 PM.png

ncfile.subtitle="My model data subtitle"
ncfile.anything="write anything"

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.45.55 PM.png

We can add as many attributes as we like.

Creating Variables

Now, let us add some variables to store some data in them. A variable has a name, a type, a shape and some data values. The shape of the variable can be stated using the tuple of the dimension names. The variable should also contain some attributes such as units to describe the data.

lat = ncfile.createVariable('lat', np.float32, ('lat',))
lat.units = 'degrees_north'
lat.long_name = 'latitude'
lon = ncfile.createVariable('lon', np.float32, ('lon',))
lon.units = 'degrees_east'
lon.long_name = 'longitude'
time = ncfile.createVariable('time', np.float64, ('time',))
time.units = 'hours since 1800-01-01'
time.long_name = 'time'
temp = ncfile.createVariable('temp',np.float64,('time','lat','lon')) # note: unlimited dimension is leftmost
temp.units = 'K' # degrees Kelvin
temp.standard_name = 'air_temperature' # this is a CF standard name

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.51.29 PM.png

Here, we create the variable using the createVariable method. This method takes 3 arguments: a variable name (string type), data types, a tuple containing the dimension. We have also added some attributes such as for the variable lat, we added the attribute of units and long_name. Also, notice the units of the time variable.

We also have defined the 3-dimensional variable “temp” which is dependent on the other variables time, lat and lon.

In addition to the custom attributes, the netCDF provides some pre-defined attributes as well.

print("-- Some pre-defined attributes for variable temp:")
print("temp.dimensions:", temp.dimensions)
print("temp.shape:", temp.shape)
print("temp.dtype:", temp.dtype)
print("temp.ndim:", temp.ndim) 

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.57.36 PM

Since no data has been added, the length of the time dimension is 0.

Writing Data

nlats = len(lat_dim); nlons = len(lon_dim); ntimes = 3
lat[:] = -90. + (180./nlats)*np.arange(nlats) # south pole to north pole
lon[:] = (180./nlats)*np.arange(nlons) # Greenwich meridian eastward
data_arr = np.random.uniform(low=280,high=330,size=(ntimes,nlats,nlons))
temp[:,:,:] = data_arr # Appends data along unlimited dimension
print("-- Wrote data, temp.shape is now ", temp.shape)
print("-- Min/Max values:", temp[:,:,:].min(), temp[:,:,:].max())

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 3.02.52 PM.png

The length of the lat and lon variable will be equal to its dimension. Since the length of the time variable is unlimited and is subject to grow, we can give it any size. We can treat netCDF array as a numpy array and add data to it. The above statement writes all the data at once, but we can do it iteratively as well.

Now, let’s add another time slice.

data_slice = np.random.uniform(low=280,high=330,size=(nlats,nlons))
temp[3,:,:] = data_slice 
print("-- Wrote more data, temp.shape is now ", temp.shape) 

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 3.10.20 PM.png

Note, that we haven’t added any data to the time variable yet.

times_arr = time[:]

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 3.12.50 PM.png

The dashes indicate that there is no data available. Also, notice the 4 dashes corresponding to the four levels in of the time stacks.

Now, let us write some data to the time variable using the datetime module of Python and the date2num function of netCDF4.

import datetime as dt
from netCDF4 import date2num,num2date
dates = [dt.datetime(2014,10,1,0),dt.datetime(2014,10,2,0),dt.datetime(2014,10,3,0),dt.datetime(2014,10,4,0)]

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 3.17.16 PM.png

times = date2num(dates, time.units)
print(times, time.units) # numeric values

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 3.18.53 PM.png

Now, it’s important to close the netCDF file which has been opened previously. This flushes buffers to make sure all the data gets written. It also releases the memory resources used by the netCDF file.

# first print the Dataset object to see what we've got
# close the Dataset.
ncfile.close(); print('Dataset is closed!')

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 3.23.38 PM.png


Reading NetCDF4 Data in Python

In Earth Sciences, we often deal with multidimensional data structures such as climate data, GPS data. It ‘s hard to save such data in text files as it would take a lot of memory as well as it is not fast to read, write and process it. One of the best tools to deal with such data is netCDF4. It stores the data in the HDF5 format (Hierarchical Data Format). The HDF5 is designed to store a large amount of data. NetCDF is the project hosted by Unidata Program at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR).

Here, we learn how to read and write netCDF4 data. We follow the workshop by Unidata. You can check out the website of Unidata.



You can install Python3 via the Anaconda platform. I would recommend Miniconda over Anaconda because it is more light and installs only fundamental requirements for Python.

NetCDF4 Package:

conda install -c conda-forge netcdf4

Reading NetCDF data:

Now, we are good to go. Let’s see how we can read a netCDF data. The netCDF data has the extension of “.nc”


Importing NetCDF and Numpy ( a Python library that supports large multi-dimensional arrays or matrices):

import netCDF4
import numpy as np

Now, let us open a NetCDF Dataset object:

f = netCDF4.Dataset('../../data/rtofs_glo_3dz_f006_6hrly_reg3.nc')

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 12.21.35 PM.png

Here, we have read a NetCDF file “rtofs_glo_3dz_f006_6hrly_reg3.nc”. When we print the object “f”, then we can notice that it has a file format of HDF5. It also has other information regarding the title, institution, etc for the data. These are known as metadata.

In the end of the object file print output, we see the dimensions and variable information of the data set. This dataset has 4 dimensions: MT (with size 1), Y (size: 850), X (size: 712), Depth (size: 10). Then we have the variables. The variables are based on the defined dimensions. The variables are outputted with their data type such as float64 MT (dimension: MT).

Some variables are based on only one dimension while others are based on more than one. For example, “temperature” variable relies on four dimensions – MT, Depth, Y, X in the same order.

We can access the information from this object, “f” just like we read a dictionary in Python.

print(f.variables.keys()) # get all variable names

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 12.35.04 PM.png

This outputs the names of all the variables in the read netCDF file referenced by “f” object.

We can also individually access each variable:

temp = f.variables['temperature'] # temperature variable

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 12.35.47 PM.png

The “temperature” variable is of the type float32 and has 4 dimensions – MT, Depth, Y, X. We can also get the other information (meta-data) like the coordinates, standard name, units of the variable. Coordinate variables are the 1D variables that have the same name as dimensions. It is helpful in locating the values in time and space. The unit of temperature variable data is “degC”. The current shape gives the information about the shape of this variable. Here, it has the shape of (1, 10, 850, 712) for each dimension.

We can also check the dimension size of this variable individually:

for d in f.dimensions.items():

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 12.44.11 PM.png

The first dimension “MT” has the size of 1, but it is of unlimited type. This means that the size of this dimension can be increased indefinitely. The size of the other dimensions is fixed.

For just finding the dimensions supporting the “temperature” variable:


Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 12.51.38 PM.png


Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 12.54.34 PM.png

Similarly, we can also inspect the variables associated with each dimension:

mt = f.variables['MT']
depth = f.variables['Depth']
x,y = f.variables['X'], f.variables['Y']

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 12.58.09 PM.png

Here, we obtain the information about each of the four dimensions. The “MT” dimension, which is also a variable has a long name of “time” and units of “days since 1900-12-31 00:00:00”.  The four dimensions denote the four axes, namely- MT: T, Depth: Z, X:X, Y: Y.

Now, how do we access the data from the NetCDF variable we have just read. The NetCDF variables behave similarly to NumPy arrays. NetCDF variables can also be sliced and masked.

Let us first read the data of the variable “MT”:

time = mt[:] 

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.07.22 PM.png

Similarly, for the depth array:

dpth = depth[:]

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.08.32 PM.png

We can also apply conditionals on the slicing of the netCDF variable:

xx,yy = x[:],y[:]
print('shape of temp variable: %s' % repr(temp.shape))
tempslice = temp[0, dpth > 400, yy > yy.max()/2, xx > xx.max()/2]
print('shape of temp slice: %s' % repr(tempslice.shape))

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.10.57 PM.png

Now, let us address one question based on the given dataset. “What is the sea surface temperature and salinity at 50N and 140W?

Our dataset has the variables temperature and salinity. The “temperature” variable represents the sea surface temperature (see the long name). Now, we have to access the sea-surface temperature and salinity at a given geographical coordinates. We have the variables latitude and longitude as well.

The X and Y variables do not give the geographical coordinates. But we have the variables latitude and longitude as well.

lat, lon = f.variables['Latitude'], f.variables['Longitude']

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.19.13 PM.png

Great! So we can access the latitude and longitude data. Now, we need to find the array index, say iy and ix such that Latitude[iy, ix] is close to 50 and Longitude[iy, ix] is close to -140. We can find out the index by defining a function:

# extract lat/lon values (in degrees) to numpy arrays
latvals = lat[:]; lonvals = lon[:] 

# a function to find the index of the point closest pt
# (in squared distance) to give lat/lon value.
def getclosest_ij(lats,lons,latpt,lonpt):
 # find squared distance of every point on grid
 dist_sq = (lats-latpt)**2 + (lons-lonpt)**2 
 # 1D index of minimum dist_sq element
 minindex_flattened = dist_sq.argmin()
 # Get 2D index for latvals and lonvals arrays from 1D index
 return np.unravel_index(minindex_flattened, lats.shape)

iy_min, ix_min = getclosest_ij(latvals, lonvals, 50., -140)

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.24.01 PM.png

So, now we have all the information required to answer the question.

sal = f.variables['salinity']
# Read values out of the netCDF file for temperature and salinity
print('%7.4f %s' % (temp[0,0,iy_min,ix_min], temp.units))
print('%7.4f %s' % (sal[0,0,iy_min,ix_min], sal.units))

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.27.04 PM.png

Accessing the Remote Data via openDAP:

We can access the remote data seamlessly using the netcdf4-python API. We can access via the DAP protocol and DAP servers, such as TDS.

For using this functionality, we require the additional package “siphon”:

conda install -c unidata siphon 

Now, let us access one catalog data:

from siphon.catalog import get_latest_access_url
URL = get_latest_access_url('http://thredds.ucar.edu/thredds/catalog/grib/NCEP/GFS/Global_0p5deg/catalog.xml',
gfs = netCDF4.Dataset(URL)

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.36.59 PM.png

# Look at metadata for a specific variable
# gfs.variables.keys() #will show all available variables.
sfctmp = gfs.variables['Temperature_surface']
# get info about sfctmp

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.38.19 PM.png

# print coord vars associated with this variable
for dname in sfctmp.dimensions: 

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.39.42 PM.png

Dealing with the Missing Data

soilmvar = gfs.variables['Volumetric_Soil_Moisture_Content_depth_below_surface_layer']

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.42.51 PM.png

# flip the data in latitude so North Hemisphere is up on the plot
soilm = soilmvar[0,0,::-1,:] 
print('shape=%s, type=%s, missing_value=%s' % \
 (soilm.shape, type(soilm), soilmvar.missing_value))

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.44.02 PM.png

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
cs = plt.contourf(soilm)

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.45.33 PM.png

Here, the soil moisture has been illustrated on the land only. The white areas on the plot are the masked values.

Dealing with Dates and Times

The time variables are usually measured relative to a fixed date using a certain calendar. The specified units are like “hours since YY:MM:DD hh:mm:ss”.

from netCDF4 import num2date, date2num, date2index
timedim = sfctmp.dimensions[0] # time dim name
print('name of time dimension = %s' % timedim)

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.51.34 PM.png

Time is usually the first dimension.

times = gfs.variables[timedim] # time coord var
print('units = %s, values = %s' % (times.units, times[:]))

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.54.25 PM.png

dates = num2date(times[:], times.units)
print([date.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S') for date in dates[:10]]) # print only first ten...

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.55.46 PM.png

We can also get the index associated with the specified date and forecast the data for that date.

import datetime as dt
date = dt.datetime.now() + dt.timedelta(days=3)
ntime = date2index(date,times,select='nearest')
print('index = %s, date = %s' % (ntime, dates[ntime]))

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 1.57.50 PM.png

This gives the time index for a time nearest to 3 days from today, current time.

Now, we can again make use of the previously defined “getcloset_ij” function to find the index of the latitude and longitude.

lats, lons = gfs.variables['lat'][:], gfs.variables['lon'][:]
# lats, lons are 1-d. Make them 2-d using numpy.meshgrid.
lons, lats = np.meshgrid(lons,lats)
j, i = getclosest_ij(lats,lons,40,-105)
fcst_temp = sfctmp[ntime,j,i]
print('Boulder forecast valid at %s UTC = %5.1f %s' % \

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.01.18 PM.png

So, we have the forecast for 2017-10-06 15 hrs. The surface temperature at boulder is 304.2 K.

Simple Multi-file Aggregation

If we have many similar data, then we can aggregate them as one. For example, if we have the many netCDF files representing data for different years, then we can aggregate them as one.

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.08.20 PM.png

Multi-File Dataset (MFDataset) uses file globbing to patch together all the files into one big Dataset.
Limitations:- It can only aggregate the data along the leftmost dimension of each variable.

  • It can only aggregate the data along the leftmost dimension of each variable.
  • only works with NETCDF3, or NETCDF4_CLASSIC formatted files.
  • kind of slow.
mf = netCDF4.MFDataset('../../data/prmsl*nc')
times = mf.variables['time']
dates = num2date(times[:],times.units)
print('starting date = %s' % dates[0])
print('ending date = %s'% dates[-1])
prmsl = mf.variables['prmsl']
print('times shape = %s' % times.shape)
print('prmsl dimensions = %s, prmsl shape = %s' %\
 (prmsl.dimensions, prmsl.shape))

Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.10.53 PM.png

Finally, we need to close the opened netCDF dataset.


Screen Shot 2017-10-03 at 2.12.18 PM.png

To download the data, click here. Next, we will see how to write a netCDF data.

Download Earthquake Catalogs from Global CMT website

In seismology, we always need to download and check the event information about the events. This python script can download the event catalog from the website to the local computer for the given range of time.

Running this program is very simple:
Screen Shot 2017-08-25 at 11.47.09 PM.png

The user just needs to input the time range for the earthquakes e.g., 2000/05-2009/08.


Requirements: Python 3

To download the program, please click here.

Calling SAC(Seismic Analysis Code) (in Perl)

For seismologists, using a SAC for sac data manipulation is essential (though there are few alternatives). Here, we see how can we call SAC from a perl script:

open(SAC, "| sac ") or die "Error opening sac\n";
print SAC qq[
echo on
*fg seismogram    #sample seismic signal in SAC's memory
fg sine 2 npts 2000 delta 0.01
*fg impulse npts 100 delta 0.01
bandpass bessel corner 0.1 0.3 npole 4
plotsp am
save sine_fft.pdf
print SAC "quit\n";

Example script to call SAC functions in perl

Some utilities to deal with sac data format

In seismology, we usually have to deal with the sac data format (binary data format). This data format can be dealt easily and efficiently with the SAC software provided by IRIS. But if we want to use this data in other software for instance MATLAB, then we may need to convert the data in alphanumeric format or to install additional functions.

Here, we show how can we deal with the sac data file format.

  1. If you have sac installed on your system, then you can make use of the sac’s “convert” command to convert the data from alphanumeric format to sac format, back and forth.
  2. There are several other functions and libraries available online to deal with the sac data file format directly in MATLAB. For example, Mike Thorne’s Software, Frederik J. Simons Repository
  3. Here we give some useful utilities:

prem is a simple program to return the PREM velocities and density for an input depth. Using this you don’t need to check manually what is the PREM velocity at a particular depths.

This can be compiled using the following steps:

g95 -c getprem_mod.f90

g95 prem.f90 -o prem ./getprem_mod.o

mkdir -p ~/bin

mv prem ~/bin

sachead returns the value of specified sac header. So, you don’t need to read the data with sac to get its header information. If you have sac already installed in your computer then you don’t need this utility as there is a utility “saclst” which does the same job.

usage: >> sachead sacfile headervariable


To compile this utility,

g95 -c mod_sac_io.f90

g95 sachead.f90 -o sachead mod_sac_io.o

mkdir -p ~/bin

mv sachead ~/bin

sac2xy converts the sac file from binary to alphanumeric format

usage: >> sac2xy sacfile outputfile


For compilation,

g95 -c mod_sac_io.f90

g95 sac2xy.f90 -o sac2xy  mod_sac_io.o

mkdir -p ~/bin

mv sac2xy ~/bin

To add these programs into the path of your system,

open “~/.bashrc” file using your favourite text editor

add the following line to it

export PATH=$PATH:~/bin

close the .bashrc file and restart your terminal window or run “.  ~/.bashrc” command

Or directly from the terminal,


echo “export PATH=$PATH:~/bin” >> ~/.bashrc

Mac users can add the following lines to the file ~/.bash_profile

C-shell users can edit the ~/.cshrc file.

echo “setenv PATH $PATH\:/~/bin” >> ~/.cshrc

We list some MATLAB functions which can be used directly to import sac data in MATLAB:

  1. load_sac : To read header and sac data
  2. rmean : To remove mean from the read sac data
  3. rtrend : To remove linear trend from the data
  4. cos_taper : Applies a 10% cosine taper
  5. bp_bu_co : Bandpass filter using butterworth filter implementation

Continue reading “Some utilities to deal with sac data format”

Tool to download large HTML file

Sometimes when you need to download catalog data using a web browser (Chrome, Firefox, etc.), it will take some time and might cause crash or lag. Here is some ways to do it:

I. Using wget
+ Install if you do not have in terminal:

yum install wget


sudo apt-get install wget

+ Basic commands:

wget –output-document= {output file}  {link to download}

E.g:wget ‐‐output-document=filename.html example.com

Details of how to use it can be find here or here.

II. A simple python code

All you need to do it install python and tqdm package using

pip install tqdm

Or run the sh file which I have already written the code to install tqdm package.

Run ./download.sh or python download.py to run, example below:

screenshot-from-2016-10-18-14-37-56You can download this small utility here.

Continue reading “Tool to download large HTML file”